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What’s a Vulnerability Disclosure Program?

What’s A Vulnerability Disclosure Program?

In the past year, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Department of Justice (DOJ)  have released guidance outlining the need for vulnerability disclosure programs (VDP).  With support from major legislative bodies like the National Institute of Standards and Technology, widespread adoption of vulnerability disclosure programs is expected and necessary in the coming years. 

In this post, we will explore what a vulnerability disclosure program is, why they’re a bit more complex than you might realize, and identify some things to consider when adopting your own. 

What is a vulnerability disclosure program?

A vulnerability disclosure program offers a secure channel for researchers to report security issues and vulnerabilities, and typically includes a framework for intake, triage, and workflows for remediation.

To better illustrate, let’s use a concept that you’re probably already familiar with, “neighborhood watch.”  A neighborhood watch encourages people to report something if they see suspicious activity. Using this analogy: if you saw your neighbor’s front door open, you would probably want to let them know about it. 

Figure 1: Security breach identified by 3rd party

But if you didn’t already have your neighbor’s contact information, how would you let them know? Or if you left a note, how will you know if they received the message?  Vulnerability disclosure programs provide a way to report potential security risks to your neighbors in a formalized and consistent way, but also provide a channel for the reporter to be notified you got the message. Now let’s think about this in terms of your internet-facing assets.

Figure 2: VDP as a neighborhood watch

You and your neighbors have an easy way to communicate with each other in the event you find a security risk. And this is not limited to just an open door – it could be an open window, garage door, or even a Wi-Fi connection without a password. With a vulnerability disclosure program, researchers and companies can send and receive vulnerability reports in one central channel.

Major companies like Walmart, Office Depot, and Motorola Mobility actively use vulnerability disclosure programs to provide a submission channel to the wider researcher community. At the same time, having a vulnerability disclosure program tells customers you care about their security.

So it seems like common sense right? Why wouldn’t you want good neighbors to let you know when something looks broken? 

If you’d like to learn more about the basics, check out our post What’s a Vulnerability Disclosure Program?

The hard part of vulnerability disclosure 

Your neighbors are not perfect. Some of them might be a little too cautious, and assumed your window was open when it really wasn’t (that Windex works!). Or, perhaps it could be that you actually have guest Wi-Fi on top of your private network. 

As your house or “organization” increases in size, and your potential attack surface increases, inherently increasing risk and the number of security vulnerabilities. Managing these incoming reports can easily turn into a nightmare, inundating your security team with vulnerabilities.

Figure 3: Influx of vulnerabilities at scale

What’s needed at scale is a way to triage the reported security risks coming in from researchers, and to prioritize the security risks that matter. Organizations do not have the time or resources to triage and validate every single incoming finding. It is vital to designate a key stakeholder, team or partner to provide management, including technical review and escalation of valid vulnerability submissions as well as facilitation of researcher communications crucial for detailed reports, deeper context, and high engagement. 


Disclosure methods


Responsible disclosure

Responsible disclosure is when the vulnerability is disclosed only after there has been enough time to patch or close the issue. Since developers require time to come up with a fix, the disclosure timeframe can range from a few days or weeks to several months. For example, Google’s Project Zero has a 90-day disclosure period, while the infamous Spectre and and Meltdown vulnerabilities that plagued Intel machines took 7 months each.


  • Restricts knowledge of the vulnerability until a patch is developed.
  • Exploits are less likely to happen since the information is limited.


  • There is less motivation for vendors to patch the flaw ASAP when compared to full disclosure.
  • Black hats may already know the vulnerability, leaving the general public at risk of exploits without their knowledge.


Full disclosure

This is when the vulnerability is disclosed as early as possible. The aim is to make affected parties aware so they can take precautionary measures. Full disclosure makes the information accessible to the general public and trades the risk of exploitation for wider research support and advanced preparation.


  • There is higher motivation for the vendor to deliver a patch quickly.
  • Admins can monitor the vulnerability or disable the attack surface while waiting for a fix.
  • Outside security experts can pitch in to help, and be rewarded or recognized for their contribution.


  • End users face higher risk while the patch is being developed.
  • Not all admins are knowledgeable or equipped to build a temporary workaround.
  • Disclosing the exploit code makes it more likely to be used, or developed into new strains.


Vulnerability Disclosure Programs – How do they work?



While there is no official standard in the industry for VDP flow, most programs follow the same basic steps: 

  1. Receive Submissions

    • A client or researcher discovers the vulnerability and informs the organization or vendor.
    • This can be done through email, a submission form, or a secure submissions page.
    • The company is then given a reasonable amount of time to respond, usually indicated on the submissions policy.  
  2. Triage and Validation

    • Advisory reports are typically pooled for filtering and prioritization.
    • The security team will investigate and validate the vulnerability.
  3. Submission Acceptance

    • The team will respond to the submitter with an acknowledgment or a request for more information to replicate the vulnerability.
    • Once the vulnerability has been validated, the submitter is duly informed.
    • Depending on the disclosure method and vendor policy, they may be eligible for reward or recognition, as well as a timeframe on when they can publish a full public disclosure.
  4. Remediation and Reporting

    • The vendor will work on a patch, which can take weeks or months depending on the complexity or severity of the flaw.
    • In cases where remediation will take longer than then standard 30 days, the vendor may opt to keep the report private. 


Bugcrowd’s fully-managed vulnerability disclosure programs

Bugcrowd provides a framework to securely accept, triage, and rapidly remediate vulnerabilities submitted from the global security community, all from our all-in-one SaaS platform, Crowdcontrol. 

Figure 4: Bugcrowd solves problem of scale

Crowdcontrol, combined with our in-house team of security experts, facilitates hundreds of managed vulnerability disclosure programs, escalating high-priority issues within hours and averaging triage completion within one business day.  This means that all the vulnerabilities coming through the researcher crowd are first vetted by Bugcrowd, according to objective rating standards like our own Vulnerability Rating Taxonomy (VRT).

In short, Bugcrowd removes virtually all overhead for your security team so they can focus on reducing risk by remediating the vulnerabilities identified – making your security team happy and efficient.


Want to learn more?

To learn more about the additional benefits of a VDP, watch this webinar on Why Every Company Should Have A Vulnerability Disclosure Program with Bugcrowd Founder Casey Ellis and CSO David Baker.

Bugcrowd connects companies and their applications to a Crowd of hundreds of thousands of security researchers to identify critical software vulnerabilities faster than traditional methods. Powered by Crowdcontrol, companies of all sizes can run crowdsourced security programs to efficiently test their applications and remediate vulnerabilities before they are exploited.

If you’re ready to begin a VDP yourself, you can check out Bugcrowd’s Vulnerability Disclosure Program here.

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